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France

Like mileposts in the construction of the nation, the major dates of orders and decorations follow the rhythms of French history, from the era of the crusades to our times.

Middle Ages

First Crusade 1096-1099

 

1291

Disappearance of the Crusader States, dispersal of the chivalric and religious orders

 

1328

Charles IV, the last son of Philip IV, died without an heir

Hundred Years’ War 1337-1453

Renaissance

 

1536

Calvin published Institutes of the Christian Religion

Wars of religion in France 1562-1598

Absolute Monarchy to the French Revolution

Reign of Louis XIV 1643-1715

 

1674

The Hôtel des Invalides was founded by Louis XIV to house and care for war invalids and veterans

Reign of Louis XV 1715-1774

 

1751
1772

The Encyclopédie:
dissemination of the ideas of the Enlightenment in France

French Revolution 1789-1799

 

1791

The royal orders are abolished, except for the Order of Saint Louis and the Institution of Military Merit, called Military Decoration and discontinued in 1792.

 

1797

Napoleon Bonaparte, General of the Army of Italy, has one hundred sabers made, each with bearing the name of the recipient.

Constitutional Monarchies

 

1814

King Louis XVIII of France:
restoration of the former royal orders alongside the Legion of Honor

 

1830

Louis Philippe I, King of the French.
The Legion of Honor beomes the sole national order